Baha’ al-Dawlah Razi (860-912 AH), the Innovator Surgeon, Empiricist Physician and Pioneer in Immunology

Document Type: Original Article


1 Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

2 Department of History, Faculty of Literature and Humanity, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran


Baha’ al-Dawlah Razi was one of the most important physicians in Safafid dynasty in Iran. He wrote his large medical book, Kholasat al-Tajarob at 1501 AD. He worked as physician in the courts of two dynasties, Teimurid and Safavid. He had interesting innovations and findings in surgery, immunology and also in treatment. As examples, we can note to his description of pertussis and also his oral vaccination method for Smallpox.