Historical Applications of Nigella sativa L. (Black cumin) in the Treatment of Zokam and Nazleh in Persian Medicine

Document Type: Original Article



Using Nigella sativa L. (Black cumin), in traditional medicine, dates back to Tutankhamen, the pharaoh of Egypt. There are aboundant historical and religious evidence implying the importance of these curative seeds. Traditionally, they have been used for various therapeutic purposes. Zokam and Nazleh (ZaN) are two nasal diseases used to be treated by these medicinal seeds. Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) classifies each of these diseases into warm and cold types. Comparing symptoms, Warm ZaN resembles Allergic rhinitis and cold ZaN is similar to Rhinosinusitis. Many documents have been found in TPM references that explain different ways for preparing Black cumin seeds for the treatment of cold ZaN, but there is no evidence for treating warm ZaN. In recent years, many original articles have been written to explain the therapeutic qualities of these curative seeds. They exhibit that Black cumin seeds, in addition to increasing the mucociliary clearance, histamine release inhibition and antihistaminic effects, have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antibacterial biofilm formation. Consequently, they confirm the application of Black cumin in the treatment of rhinosinusitis or cold ZaN.