History of Medicine in Bahrain Territory

Document Type: Original Article


1 School of Traditional Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

2 Al-Mustafa International University, Qom, Iran.


Bahrain territory is the cradle of one of the oldest civilizations in the Middle East where Dilmun Civilization (BC 5000) once was located; it was the cultural center which granted knowledge to humanity in many subjects, especially famous for literature and religion. Still, there is lack of research on the efforts of scientists in this territory regarding practical sciences such as medicine, pharmacology and agriculture. As day by day attention to alternative medicine is drawn by both public and health officials due to World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations, it is important to define traditional medicine features in this area.This article is a historical qualitative research; its goal is to introduce traditional medicine physicians, their scientific works and features of medical practice, in addition to health status they were involved in. Academic databases were searched, besides manual search in hard materials like history books, famous biographies and manuscript indices.14 scientists were recognized who had practiced medicine or had authored in this field, seven compilations and numerous manuscripts written by them; there was a lucid relation between this area’s scientists with others in India, Persia and Iraq; they wrote their books in Arabic and Persian and believed in experimental medicine. Ultimately, we can conclude that there is evidence of innovation or ancient school of medicine exclusive to this region.This study recommends: 1. Critical text study of Bahraini compilations and discovering their features; 2. More oral history research to identify ethical, social and medical successes of this region’s practitioners and 3. Quantitative study of local knowledge about plants and their medical uses to be suggested by evidence, considering hazards and drug discovery reasons.