Hygiene and Medicine during Achaemenid dynasty as narrated by Xenophon, the Greek historian, in the Cyropaedia

Document Type: Original Article


1 Department of Traditional pharmacy, School of Traditional Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical sciences, Tehran, Iran


To know every phenomenon the first step is to know its root. Hygiene and Medicine have noble origin from the beginning of the recorded human history; in fact, they have been the milestone of human society. Medical history will help us to know this background and roots and Achaemenid period as a brilliant age of Iranian heritage is meritorious to be studied. The present study is an attempt to find instances of hygienic and Medical aspects of Persian life style during this period of as recorded by Greek historians. The main purpose of this study is to answer the following questions: was there a Medical Tradition, which could be named as Persian Medical Tradition, during Achaemenid era? if yes, the next important question is: How much importance and influence it has had on the contemporary and oncoming Medical Traditions?