The Concept of Porosity and Condensity in Persian Medicine

Document Type : Original Article


1 Ph.D., Research Center for Traditional Medicine and History of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

2 Department of Persian Medicine, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

3 MD, Ph.D., Chronic Respiratory Diseases Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

4 Persian Medicine Network (PMN), Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN), Tehran, Iran

5 Ph.D., Essence of Parsiyan Wisdom Institute, Phytopharmaceutical Technology and Traditional Medicine Incubator, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran


Persian Medicine (PM) is a holistic medical system with a unique theoretical base and practical knowledge. Considering its different paradigm and background philosophy  compared to conventional medicine, understanding its fundamental principles is necessary for more accurate and efficient clinical practice. One of its fundamental theories is the concept of “Takhalkhol (porosity) and Takasof (condensity)” which has a significant impact on medical practice. This critical issue has been investigated in recent studies to evaluate the density of the body organs as a diagnostic tool. Despite its importance, no distinct section of the leading Persian Medicine sources has been dedicated to elaborating this basic concept. In this study, we have presented this crucial concept based on PM sources and current literature  to reveal its clinical relevance in the realm of its clinical relevance in diagnosis and disease management. The relation between porosity and condensity and other issues such as body composition, Mizaj (temperament), and nutrition has been discussed.