Different Ways to Treat Warts in Islamic Medicine Resources up to the Sixth Century AH

Document Type : Original Article


Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of History and Civilization of Islamic Nations, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran


In the age of development and efflorescence, Islamic medicine was founded on the principle of four temperaments; therefore, the prevalence of various diseases and their treatment methods were carried out based on the view mentioned above, namely,  temperament balance loss. According to available resources, it is clear that the recognition and treatment of some dermatoses, such as warts, were affected by this view. Warts are a common dermatosis that is discussed from various aspects and problems based on the four temperaments as perceived by doctors in Islamic civilization.  Despite the big misunderstanding in identifying the origin of this disease, mainly due to the lack of required technology and lack of accurate tools, Muslim physicians, unbelievably, were able to accurately examine and explain the type and location of their occurrence. Furthermore, the physicians could adopt appropriate treatment based on their type, extent of infection, and location. It is important to keep in mind that, with some advancements in technology and medicines, most of the treatments and medications that were widely used until the end of the 20th century can be modified to work in modern medicine.


  1. Abwriyhani Byrwny, M., 2004. Al-ṣiydanat fy Al-ṭib. Translated by Muzaffar Zadi A.Tehran: Academy of Persian Language and Literature.
  2. Avicenna, H., 2010. Gānun. Vol. 7. Translated by A. Sharafkandy. Tehran: Surush.
  3. Dimashqy, M.H., 2009. Al-risālat al-hārwnyat. Vol 1. Tehran: Iran University of Medical Sciences.
  4. Goodarzi, A., et al., 2020. Assessment of serum vitamin D level in patients withcutaneous warts: a case-control study. Iranian Journal of Dermatology, 23(2), pp. 64- 71.
  5. Habif, T.P., 2011. Skindisease: Diagnosis and treatment. 3rd ed. Translated by P. Mansory, et al. Tehran: Andisheyi Rafyi.
  6. Hirawy, M.A., 1967. Al-abnwat ʿn Haqāʾq al-adwyat. Corrected by A. Bahmanyar. Tehran: Tehran University.
  7. huniyn ibni ishaq, 1978. Al-masāʾil fy al-ṭib lilmutaʿllimyn. Cairo: Egyptian Universities House.
  8. Ibn Jwzy, 2010. liqṭ al-manāfʿ fy ʿilm al-ṭib. Corrected by A.A. Marzwq. Cairo: National Books and Documents House, Heritage Investigation Center.
  9. Ibn sad Katib Wagidy, M., 1995. Al-ṭabaqāt Al-kubrā. Vol. 4. Translated by M. Mahdawy Damghany. Tehran: Farhang va Andisheh Publications.
  10. Israʾyly, I.S., 1991. Alaqhdhyat wal-adwyat. Corrected by M. Sabah. Beirut: Azzidyn Foundation.
  11. Jurjany, I., 1990. Khufy ʿlāyy. Corrected by A. Wilayaty and M. Najmabady. Tehran: Ettelaat Publications.
  12. Jurjany, I., 2012. Zakhyriyi Khārazmshāhy. Vol. 10. Qom: Institute of Natural Medicine Rehabilitation.
  13. Kahal, A., 2008. Tadhkurat al-kahāllyn. Tehran: Iran University of Medical Sciences.
  14. Kashkary, Y., 2007. Kanāsh fy al-ṭib. Corrected by A. Shyry. Tehran: Iran University of Medical Sciences.
  15. Katzong, B.G., 2017. Basics Clinical Pharmacology. 14th ed. Vol. 2. Translated by X.H. Sobhanyan, A. Mokhtarzadi, M. Fathy Kazrwny, S. Hosiyny. Tehran: Arjmand.
  16. Lipke, M.M., 2006. An Armamentarium of Wart Treatments. Clinical Medicine & Research, 4(4), pp. 273-274.
  17. Majuwsy, A., 1997. Al-Kaḥālat. Corrected by M.R. Qalaijy, M.Z. Wafaei. Damishq: Publications of the Ministry of Culture.
  18. Majuwsy, A., 2008. Kāmil al-ṣanāʿat al- ṭibyat. 2-4. Corrected by Institute of Natural Medicine Rehabilitation. Qom: jalal al-din.
  19. Qalanisy Samarqandy, M., 1982. Aqrabādhyn Qalānisy. Corrected by M.Z. Baba. Halab: Institute of Arab Scientific Heritage.
  20. Razi, M., 1987. Al-Mansūri fy al- ṭib. Corrected by F.H. Bakri. Kuwait: Arab Organization for Education, Culture and Science.
  21. Razi, M., 1991. Taqāsym al-ʿilal. Corrected by Hammamy. Halab: Publications of the University of Aleppo, the Institute of Arab Scientific Heritage.
  22. Razi, M., 1998. Min lāyaḥḍarat al-ṭib. Corrected by M.A. Al-Dannawy. Cairo: Dar Rikaby lilnashr.
  23. Razi, M., 2001. Al-ḥāwy fy al- ṭib. Vols. 9, 17, 20, 21 and 23. Corrected by H.Kh. Taeimi. Beirut: House of Revival of Arab Heritage.
  24. Sabit Ibni Quri, 1998. Al-dhakhyrat fy ʿilm al-ṭib. Correction by Mazydy, AF. Beirut: Dāral-kutub al- ʿilmyat.
  25. Tabari, A., 2002. Firdws al-ḥikmat fy al-ṭib. Beirut: Daral-kutub al-Elmyat.
  26. Tamimi, MA., 1999. Mādat al-baqā fy Iṣlāḥi Fasād al-hawāʾ wal-taḥrz min ḍarar al-awbāʾ. Corrected by Y. Shar. Cairo: Institute of Arabic Manuscripts.
  27. Yazdanfar, A., et al., 2014. Comparison of the therapeutic effect of Euphorbia macrolada latexwith standard keratolytic therapy on common warts: A randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial. Dermatology and Cosmetic, 5 (3), pp.103- 109.
  28. Zahrawy, Kh., 2001. Al-jarāhat Article thirtieth of Al-taṣryf Limanʿjz ʿn al-taʾlyf. Corrected by A.A. Nasir and Al-Twyjiry. Riyadh: Al Farazdaq Commercial Printing Press.
  29. Zahrawy, Kh., 2004. Al-taṣryf Limanʿjz ʿn al-taʾlyf. Corrected by M. Sobhi. Kuwait: Kuwait Foundation for Scientific Advancement.