Frawahr and Embryo Development Stages in Middle Persian Text of Selections of Zādispram

Document Type : Original Article


1 Ph.D. Student of Ancient Iranian Culture and Languages, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Professor in Ancient Iranian Languages, Department of Foreign Languages and Linguistics, Faculty of Litterature and Humanities, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

3 Professor of Ancient Culture and Languages, Institute of Humanities and Cultural Studies, Tehran, Iran


In the Middle Persian text of selections of Zādispram, the stages of embryo development, frāz-waxšēnīdar Frawahr power (ether), and the three functions of “germinating,” “adding,” and “caring” create the way of caring for and nurturing the cellular environment. By creating a defense barrier, this power protects the cells against factors that reduce the cell reserve, including differentiation stimuli and apoptosis (programmed cell death) stimuli. The question raised in this research is that according to the stages of evolution (transformation), “how does Frawahr power guard and take care of the development stages of humans before birth and until death?” In other words, the present study aimed to investigate and analyze the theory of “development,” which explains that a cell contributes to the process and stages of embryo development and self-renewal by performing symmetrical division based on the draft and planning of the Frawahr power. The research method was descriptive-analytical, focusing on the attitude of Zādispram about concepts, such as embryo development and genesis. The findings revealed that the Frawahr power and the proliferation potential could prompt the accumulation of cell lines, including embryonic and bone marrow cells; accordingly, the embryonic body causes renewal in humans. 


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